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9 Perkara yang Mungkin Anda Tidak Ketahui Mengenai Sumeria Kuno

9 Perkara yang Mungkin Anda Tidak Ketahui Mengenai Sumeria Kuno

1. Salah satu bandar Sumeria yang lebih besar mungkin mempunyai 80,000 penduduk.

Asal-usul tamadun Sumeria di Mesopotamia masih diperdebatkan hari ini, tetapi bukti arkeologi menunjukkan bahawa mereka menubuhkan kira-kira selusin negara-negara menjelang milenium keempat SM. Ini biasanya terdiri dari kota metropolis berdinding yang didominasi oleh ziggurat — kuil-kuil seperti piramid berjenjang yang berkaitan dengan agama Sumeria. Rumah dibina dari buluh paya atau batu bata lumpur, dan saluran pengairan kompleks digali untuk memanfaatkan perairan Tigris dan Efrat yang penuh dengan kelodak untuk bertani. Negara-negara besar di Sumeria termasuk Eridu, Ur, Nippur, Lagash dan Kish, tetapi salah satu yang tertua dan paling luas adalah Uruk, hab perdagangan yang berkembang pesat yang memiliki tembok pertahanan sejauh enam batu dan penduduk antara 40,000 dan 80,000. Pada puncaknya sekitar tahun 2800 SM, kemungkinan besar ia adalah bandar terbesar di dunia.

2. Senarai penguasa Sumeria merangkumi seorang wanita.

Salah satu sumber informasi terbesar mengenai Mesopotamia kuno adalah apa yang disebut "Daftar Raja", sebuah tablet tanah liat yang mendokumentasikan nama-nama kebanyakan penguasa kuno Sumer serta jangka masa pemerintahan mereka. Senarai itu adalah gabungan fakta dan mitos yang pelik — seorang raja awal dikatakan telah hidup selama 43.200 tahun — tetapi juga termasuk raja tunggal wanita Sumer dalam bentuk Kubaba, seorang "penjaga kedai wanita" yang konon mengambil takhta di negeri-kota Kish sekitar tahun 2500 SM Sangat sedikit yang diketahui tentang pemerintahan Kubaba atau bagaimana dia berkuasa, tetapi daftar itu memujinya dengan menjadikan "landasan Kish" yang teguh dan menjalin dinasti yang berlangsung selama 100 tahun.

3. Negeri-negeri kota Sumeria sering berperang antara satu sama lain.

Walaupun mereka mempunyai tradisi bahasa dan budaya yang sama, negara-negara Sumeria terlibat dalam perang yang hampir berterusan yang mengakibatkan beberapa dinasti dan pemerintahan yang berbeza. Konflik pertama yang diketahui dalam sejarah ini berkaitan dengan Raja Eannatum dari Lagash, yang mengalahkan negara-negara pesaing Umma dalam perbalahan perbatasan sekitar tahun 2450 SM. Untuk memperingati kemenangannya, Eannatum membangun apa yang disebut "Stele of the Vultures," sebuah tugu batu kapur yang mengerikan yang menggambarkan burung-burung berpesta di daging musuh-musuhnya yang jatuh. Di bawah Eannatum, Lagash terus menakluk seluruh Sumeria, tetapi hanya salah satu dari beberapa negara kota yang menguasai Mesopotamia selama sejarahnya.
Pertempuran menyebabkan beberapa kemajuan tentera - orang Sumeria mungkin telah mencipta formasi phalanx dan perang pengepungan - tetapi itu juga membuat mereka rentan terhadap serangan oleh pasukan luar. Pada peringkat terakhir sejarah mereka, mereka diserang atau ditakluki oleh orang Elam, Akkadia dan Gutian.

4. Orang Sumeria terkenal dengan bir.

Seiring dengan penulisan penemuan, roda, bajak, kod undang-undang dan kesusasteraan, orang Sumeria juga dikenang sebagai beberapa pembuat bir asli sejarah. Ahli arkeologi telah menemui bukti pembuatan bir Mesopotamia sejak abad keempat SM. Teknik pembuatan bir yang mereka gunakan masih menjadi misteri, tetapi bir pilihan mereka sepertinya ramuan berasaskan barli begitu tebal sehingga harus disesap melalui jerami penapisan khas. Orang Sumeria menghargai bir mereka kerana ramuannya yang kaya dengan nutrien dan menganggapnya sebagai kunci untuk "hati yang gembira dan hati yang puas." Bahkan ada dewi pembuatan bir Sumeria yang disebut "Ninkasi," yang dirayakan dalam pujian yang terkenal sebagai "orang yang menyiram malt di tanah."

5. Tulisan Cuneiform digunakan selama lebih dari 3,000 tahun.

Penciptaan Sumeria dari cuneiform - istilah Latin yang secara harfiah bermaksud "berbentuk baji" - berlaku sekitar 3400 SM. Dalam bentuknya yang paling canggih, ia terdiri daripada beberapa ratus watak yang digunakan para penulis kuno untuk menulis perkataan atau suku kata pada tablet tanah liat basah dengan stylus buluh. Tablet kemudian dibakar atau dibiarkan di bawah sinar matahari untuk mengeras. Orang Sumeria sepertinya pertama kali mengembangkan cuneiform untuk tujuan biasa menyimpan akaun dan catatan urus niaga perniagaan, tetapi lama-kelamaan ia berkembang menjadi sistem penulisan lengkap yang digunakan untuk segala sesuatu, mulai dari puisi dan sejarah hingga kod undang-undang dan sastra. Oleh kerana skrip itu dapat disesuaikan dengan beberapa bahasa, ia kemudian digunakan selama beberapa milenium oleh lebih dari selusin budaya yang berbeza. Sebenarnya, ahli arkeologi telah menemui bukti bahawa teks astronomi Dekat Timur masih ditulis dalam bentuk cuneiform baru-baru ini pada abad pertama A.D.

6. Orang Sumeria adalah pedagang perdagangan yang dilalui dengan baik.

Oleh kerana tanah air mereka sebahagian besarnya tidak mempunyai kayu, batu dan mineral, orang Sumeria terpaksa membuat salah satu jaringan perdagangan terawal sejarah di darat dan laut. Rakan niaga mereka yang paling penting mungkin adalah pulau Dilmun (sekarang Bahrain), yang memonopoli perdagangan tembaga, tetapi pedagang mereka juga melakukan perjalanan selama berbulan-bulan ke Anatolia dan Lebanon untuk mengumpulkan kayu cedar dan ke Oman dan Indus Lembah untuk emas dan batu permata. Orang Sumeria sangat menyukai lapis lazuli - batu berharga berwarna biru yang digunakan dalam seni dan perhiasan - dan ada bukti bahawa mereka mungkin berkeliaran sejauh Afghanistan untuk mendapatkannya. Sejarawan juga mengemukakan bahawa rujukan Sumeria ke dua tanah perdagangan kuno yang dikenal sebagai "Magan" dan "Meluhha" mungkin merujuk kepada Mesir dan Ethiopia.

7. Wira Epik Gilgamesh mungkin merupakan tokoh sejarah Sumeria yang sebenar.

Salah satu pencapaian utama sastera Mesopotamia adalah "Epik Gilgamesh," sebuah puisi 3.000 baris yang mengikuti petualangan seorang raja Sumeria ketika dia memerangi raksasa hutan dan mencari rahasia kehidupan abadi. Walaupun pahlawan puisi itu adalah demigod dengan kekuatan seperti Hercules, kebanyakan sarjana percaya bahawa dia berdasarkan seorang raja yang sebenarnya yang bertugas sebagai penguasa kelima kota Uruk. Gilgamesh yang bersejarah muncul di "Senarai Raja" Sumeria dan dianggap hidup sekitar 2700 SM. Beberapa kisah kontemporari pemerintahannya bertahan hingga hari ini, tetapi ahli arkeologi telah menemukan prasasti yang memujinya dengan membangun tembok pertahanan besar Uruk dan mengembalikan sebuah kuil kepada dewi Ninhil, yang menunjukkan bahawa dia mungkin menjadi penguasa yang sebenarnya yang perbuatannya kemudian diubah menjadi mitos .

8. Matematik dan pengukuran Sumeria masih digunakan hingga kini.

Asal-usul minit enam puluh detik dan jam enam puluh minit dapat ditelusuri hingga ke Mesopotamia kuno. Dengan cara yang sama bahawa matematik moden adalah sistem perpuluhan berdasarkan nombor sepuluh, orang Sumeria menggunakan struktur seksigesimal yang berdasarkan sekitar kelompok 60. Sistem nombor yang mudah dibahagikan ini kemudiannya diadopsi oleh orang Babilonia kuno, yang menggunakannya menjadikan astronomi pengiraan panjang bulan dan tahun. Base-60 akhirnya tidak dapat digunakan lagi, tetapi warisannya masih bertahan dalam ukuran kedua-dua jam dan minit. Sisa lain dari sistem sexigesimal Sumeria telah bertahan dalam bentuk pengukuran spasial seperti 360 darjah dalam bulatan dan 12 inci pada kaki.

9. Budaya Sumeria hilang sejarah hingga abad ke-19.

Setelah Mesopotamia diduduki oleh orang Amori dan Babilonia pada awal milenium kedua SM, orang Sumeria secara beransur-ansur kehilangan identiti budaya mereka dan tidak lagi wujud sebagai kekuatan politik. Semua pengetahuan mengenai sejarah, bahasa dan teknologi mereka - bahkan nama mereka - akhirnya dilupakan. Rahsia mereka tetap terkubur di padang pasir Iraq hingga abad ke-19, ketika ahli arkeologi Perancis dan Inggeris akhirnya menemui artifak Sumeria sambil memburu bukti orang Asyur kuno. Para cendekiawan seperti Henry Rawlinson, Edward Hincks, Julius Oppert dan Paul Haupt kemudian memimpin dalam menguraikan bahasa Sumeria dan cuneiform, memberikan sejarawan sejarah pertama dan sejarah sastera Mesopotamia yang telah lama hilang. Sejak itu, ahli arkeologi telah menemui banyak karya seni, tembikar dan patung Sumeria serta sekitar 500.000 tablet tanah liat, sebahagian besar daripadanya masih belum diterjemahkan.


Orang Sumeria

Orang Sumeria adalah orang-orang Mesopotamia selatan yang tamadunnya berkembang antara c. 4100-1750 SM. Nama mereka berasal dari wilayah yang sering - dan tidak betul - disebut sebagai "negara". Sumer tidak pernah menjadi entiti politik yang kohesif, tetapi wilayah negara-negara kota masing-masing dengan rajanya sendiri.

Sumer adalah rakan selatan ke wilayah utara Akkad yang orang-orangnya memberi nama kepada Sumer, yang bermaksud "tanah raja-raja yang beradab". Orang Sumeria sendiri menyebut wilayah mereka hanya sebagai "tanah" atau "tanah orang berkepala hitam".

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Orang Sumeria bertanggung jawab atas banyak inovasi, penemuan, dan konsep terpenting yang dianggap biasa pada masa kini. Mereka pada dasarnya "mencipta" waktu dengan membahagikan siang dan malam menjadi 12 jam, jam menjadi 60 minit, dan minit menjadi 60 saat. Inovasi dan penemuan mereka yang lain termasuk sekolah-sekolah pertama, versi awal kisah Banjir Besar dan kisah-kisah alkitabiah lainnya, epik kepahlawanan tertua, birokrasi pemerintahan, seni bina monumental, dan teknik pengairan.

Setelah kebangkitan orang Amori di Mesopotamia, dan pencerobohan orang Elam, Sumer tidak lagi ada dan hanya diketahui melalui rujukan dalam karya penulis kuno, termasuk para ahli kitab yang menulis Kitab Kejadian yang alkitabiah. Sumer tetap tidak diketahui sehingga pertengahan abad ke-19 CE ketika penggalian di Mesopotamia menggali peradaban mereka dan membawa banyak sumbangan mereka menjadi terang.

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Pembangunan & 39 Pertama

Sepanjang abad ke-19 CE, ahli arkeologi Eropah turun ke Timur Dekat untuk mencari kota, makam, dan artifak kuno. Tidak ada yang pergi ke Mesopotamia untuk mencari bandar-bandar Sumeria kerana tidak ada yang tahu peradaban itu pernah ada - mereka ingin menggali laman-laman yang disebutkan dalam Alkitab seperti Babylon dan Nineveh dan tempat misteri yang disebut Shinar - tetapi mereka menjumpai lebih banyak daripada mereka menjangkakan.

Daftar untuk mendapatkan buletin e-mel percuma setiap minggu!

Tidak ada yang tahu dari mana orang Sumeria berasal, tetapi oleh c. 2900 SM, mereka bertapak di Mesopotamia selatan. Sejarah wilayah ini dibahagikan oleh sarjana moden menjadi enam era:

  • Zaman Ubaid - c. 5000-4100 SM
  • Tempoh Uruk - 4100-2900
  • Zaman Dinasti Awal -2900-2334 SM
  • Zaman Akkadian - 2334-2218 SM
  • Zaman Gutian - c. 2218-2047 SM
  • Zaman Ur III (juga dikenali sebagai The Sumerian Renaissance) - 2047-1750 SM

Asal-usul masyarakat Zaman Ubaid juga tidak diketahui - seperti budaya mereka - tetapi mereka meninggalkan beberapa artifak yang menarik dan mungkin mendirikan komuniti pertama yang berkembang menjadi bandar-bandar kemudian dan berkembang menjadi negara kota pada Zaman Uruk. Zaman Dinasti Awal menyaksikan kebangkitan raja, penubuhan pemerintahan dan birokrasi, dan konflik antara negara-negara Sumeria untuk hak tanah dan air. Bandar-bandar Sumeria secara berkala disatukan di bawah raja tunggal, seperti dalam kasus Enembaragesi dari Kish yang memimpin Sumer menentang Elam dalam perang pertama yang tercatat dalam sejarah c. 2700 SM. Orang Sumeria menang dan memecat kota-kota Elam.

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Raja Eannatum kemudiannya akan merebut kembali bahagian-bahagian Elam c. 2500 BCE dan Lugalzagesi akan melakukan perkara yang sama c. 2330 SM tetapi raja-raja ini tidak pernah dapat menguasai sepenuhnya kota-kota Sumeria. Sumer akhirnya ditakluki oleh Sargon dari Akkad (r. 2334-2279 SM) yang menjadikannya teras kerajaan multinasionalnya. Dia mempertahankan penguasaan wilayah ini dengan menempatkan pejabat yang dipercaya di posisi yang kuat di setiap kota - termasuk putrinya, Enheduanna (l. 2285-2250 SM), Pendeta Agung dewi Inanna di Ur (terkenal sendiri sebagai yang pertama di dunia pengarang yang dikenali dengan nama). Kekaisaran Akkadian memegang wilayah tersebut hingga pencerobohan orang-orang Gut yang memerintah sehingga mereka diusir oleh Ur-Nammu (r. 2047-2030 SM) dan anaknya Shulgi dari Ur (r. 2029-1982 SM) yang bertanggungjawab untuk apa yang disebut Renaisans Sumeria yang menyaksikan kelahiran semula budaya Sumeria berikutan penaklukan Akkadian dan Gutian.

Bandar Sumeria, sebelum dan selepas penaklukan, bertambah kaya dengan perdagangan. Kestabilan relatif bandar mendorong pertumbuhan budaya, inovasi, dan penemuan. Cendekiawan Samuel Noah Kramer, dalam karya ikoniknya Sejarah Bermula di Sumer, meneroka 39 "pertama" di dunia yang berasal dari orang Sumeria:

  1. Sekolah Pertama
  2. Kes Pertama 'Apple Polishing'
  3. Kes Pertama Kenakalan Remaja
  4. 'Perang Saraf' Pertama
  5. Kongres Bicameral Pertama
  6. Ahli Sejarah Pertama
  7. Kes Pengurangan Cukai Pertama
  8. 'Musa' Pertama
  9. Utusan Undang-undang Pertama
  10. Pharmacopoeia Pertama
  11. 'Almanak Petani' Pertama
  12. Percubaan Pertama dalam Berkebun Pokok Teduh
  13. Kosmogoni dan Kosmologi Pertama Manusia
  14. Cita-Cita Moral Pertama
  15. 'Pekerjaan' Pertama
  16. Peribahasa dan Pepatah Pertama
  17. Fabel Haiwan Pertama
  18. Perbahasan Sastera Pertama
  19. Perumpamaan Alkitab Pertama
  20. 'Nuh' Pertama
  21. Kisah Kebangkitan Pertama
  22. Yang Pertama 'St. George '
  23. Kes Pertama Meminjam Sastera
  24. Zaman Pahlawan Pertama Manusia
  25. Lagu Cinta Pertama
  26. Katalog Perpustakaan Pertama
  27. Zaman Emas Pertama Manusia
  28. Persatuan 'Sakit' Pertama
  29. Lamen Liturgi Pertama
  30. Mesias Pertama
  31. Johan Jarak Jauh Pertama
  32. Citra Sastera Pertama
  33. Simbolisme Seks Pertama
  34. Materi Pertama Dolorosa
  35. Lullaby Pertama
  36. Potret Sastera Pertama
  37. Elegies Pertama
  38. Kemenangan Pertama Buruh
  39. Akuarium Pertama

Orang Sumeria juga mencipta konsep kota dan salah satu yang menuntut gelaran "kota tertua di dunia" adalah Uruk Sumeria. Bandar-bandar terawal yang ditubuhkan di Sumer adalah:

Inti kota adalah kompleks kuil, ditandai dengan ziggurats besar yang akan menjadi inspirasi kisah Menara Babel kemudian. Setiap kota mempunyai dewa pelindungnya sendiri yang tinggal di kuil, melindungi dan membimbing warga tetapi, bagi orang Sumeria, kota Eridu - dan dewa Enki - memegang tempat yang istimewa.

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Bandar Pertama

Walaupun arkeologi moden telah membuktikan bahawa Uruk adalah kota tertua di Mesopotamia, orang Sumeria sendiri percaya bandar pertama di dunia adalah Eridu, yang dipimpin oleh dewa kebijaksanaan dan air mereka, Enki, yang membesarkannya dari rawa berair dan menubuhkan konsep pemerintahan dan ketertiban di negeri ini. Penubuhan Eridu oleh Enki dilihat sebagai sejenis zaman kegemilangan yang setanding dengan Taman Eden yang alkitabiah sebagai rumah para dewa dan tempat kelahiran peraturan yang mengatur peradaban (dikenali sebagai meh). Cendekiawan Gwendolyn Leick menyatakan:

Mesopotamia Eden bukan taman tetapi kota, terbentuk dari sebidang tanah kering yang dikelilingi oleh perairan. Bangunan pertama adalah sebuah kuil… Ini adalah bagaimana tradisi Mesopotamia memperlihatkan evolusi dan fungsi kota, dan Eridu memberikan paradigma mitos. Berbeza dengan Eden alkitabiah, dari mana manusia dibuang selama-lamanya setelah Kejatuhan, Eridu tetap menjadi tempat yang nyata, dipenuhi dengan kesucian tetapi selalu dapat diakses. (2)

'Kejatuhan' Eridu tidak ada hubungannya dengan dosa-dosa umat manusia melainkan dengan kepandaian salah satu dewi Mesopotamia yang paling popular, Inanna. Dalam puisi Inanna dan Dewa Kebijaksanaan, dewi itu pergi dari kota Uruk ke Eridu, rumah ayahnya Enki, dan mengajaknya duduk dan minum bersama dengannya dan, ketika dia minum dan menjadi semakin riang, dia dengan senang hati menyerahkan meh kepada anak perempuannya. Setelah mengumpulkan mereka semua, dia berlari ke kapalnya dan membawanya ke Uruk, sehingga menjadikan kotanya unggul dan mengecilkan Eridu. Para cendekiawan moden percaya bahawa mitos ini muncul sebagai tindak balas kepada peralihan dari budaya agraria (dilambangkan oleh Eridu) ke pembangunan bandar yang dilambangkan oleh Uruk, antara bandar paling kuat di rantau ini.

Kerajaan

Agama digabungkan sepenuhnya ke dalam kehidupan masyarakat dan memberitahu pemerintah dan struktur sosial. Orang Sumeria percaya bahawa para dewa telah membentuk ketertiban dari kekacauan dan peranan individu dalam hidup adalah bekerja sebagai rakan sekerja dengan para dewa untuk memastikan kekacauan tidak akan datang lagi. Namun, para dewa itu sendiri akan membalikkan karya mereka sendiri kemudian - mengembalikan dunia menjadi huru-hara - ketika kebisingan dan masalah umat manusia menjadi terlalu besar untuk ditanggung.

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Karya Sumeria yang dikenali sebagai Eridu Genesis (dikarang sekitar tahun 2300 SM dan dijumpai di reruntuhan Eridu) adalah versi awal kisah Banjir Besar yang kemudian diceritakan semula di Atrahasis, Epik Gilgamesh, dan Kitab Kejadian. Ini menceritakan bagaimana para dewa memusnahkan umat manusia melalui banjir kecuali seorang lelaki, Ziusudra, yang diselamatkan ketika Enki menyuruhnya membina sebuah bahtera dan menyelamatkan dua dari setiap jenis haiwan. Setelah itu, para dewa mengalah dan bertekad untuk mengawal populasi manusia, dan membatasi kecenderungan mereka yang menjengkelkan, dengan memperkenalkan kematian dan penyakit ke dunia sehingga mewujudkan kembali ketertiban dan menetapkan had untuk kehidupan dan cita-cita manusia.

Para dewa mengharapkan manusia menggunakan kehidupan mereka untuk membantu menjaga ketenteraman dan ini termasuk mencari jalan untuk bekerjasama. Orang Sumeria sangat bangga dengan keperibadian mereka, seperti yang dibuktikan oleh peningkatan dewa pelindung setiap kota dan persaingan dan konflik yang berselang, tetapi dituntut oleh para dewa untuk mengetepikan ini demi kepentingan kebaikan bersama. Kramer menulis:

Walaupun orang Sumeria menetapkan nilai tinggi pada individu dan pencapaiannya, ada satu faktor utama yang memupuk semangat kerjasama yang kuat antara individu dan masyarakat: pergantungan sepenuhnya orang Sumeria pada pengairan untuk kesejahteraannya - sesungguhnya, kerana sangat kewujudan. Pengairan adalah proses yang rumit yang memerlukan usaha dan organisasi komunal. Terusan mesti digali dan terus diperbaiki. Air harus dibahagi secara adil antara semua yang berkenaan. Untuk memastikan ini, kuasa yang lebih kuat daripada pemilik tanah individu atau bahkan komuniti tunggal adalah wajib: oleh itu, pertumbuhan institusi pemerintahan dan kebangkitan negara Sumeria. (Orang Sumeria, 5)

Sumer King List, sebuah dokumen yang disusun c. 2100 SM di Lagash, menyenaraikan semua raja yang akan kembali ke awal dunia ketika para dewa pertama kali menjalin pemerintahan di Eridu. Raja pertama yang dibuktikan secara arkeologi adalah Etana, digambarkan sebagai "dia yang menstabilkan semua tanah" (Orang Sumeria, 43) dan senarai kemudian ditulis secara kronologi - selalunya dengan tarikh yang sangat lama untuk raja - hingga pemerintahan raja-raja pada tahun c. 2100 SM.

Negara kota Sumeria diperintah oleh seorang raja, yang Lugal (harfiah "orang besar") yang mengawasi penanaman tanah, di antara banyak tanggungjawab lain, dan terikat kepada para dewa untuk memastikan kehendak mereka dilaksanakan di bumi. The Lugal pada mulanya merupakan ketua "rumah tangga" - sebuah komuniti yang erat, yang mengumpulkan sumber daya mereka - dan konsep rumah tangga akan terus berlanjutan sebagai struktur kuasa yang mendasari kota-kota. Dengan munculnya kota-kota dan perkembangan inovasi pertanian, orang Sumeria mengubah cara hidup manusia, dan akan hidup, selama-lamanya. Ulama Paul Kriwaczek mengulas:

Ini adalah saat revolusi dalam sejarah manusia. [Sumeria] secara sadar bertujuan untuk tidak lain daripada mengubah dunia. Mereka adalah yang pertama mengadopsi prinsip yang mendorong kemajuan dan kemajuan sepanjang sejarah, dan masih mendorong kebanyakan kita di zaman moden: keyakinan bahawa itu adalah hak kemanusiaan, misi dan takdirnya, untuk mengubah dan memperbaiki alam semula jadi dan menjadi tuannya. (20)

Sumbangan & Keruntuhan

Bandar-bandar Sumeria berkembang, dan ketika mereka memerlukan lebih banyak ruang dan sumber daya yang lebih besar, mereka mengambilnya dari yang lain. Semasa Zaman Uruk, budaya berkembang dengan pesat, mungkin penemuan terhebat yang memuncak pada penulisan c. 3600-3500 SM. Penulisan awal dikembangkan sebagai tindak balas kepada keperluan komunikasi jarak jauh dalam perdagangan dan menyampaikan maklumat asas seperti "dua domba - lima kambing - Kish" yang cukup jelas bagi pengirim pada masa itu tetapi tidak memiliki kemampuan untuk memberitahu penerima sama ada dua ekor domba dan lima kambing datang atau pergi dari kota Kish, sama ada mereka masih hidup atau mati, dan apa tujuannya. Sistem ini akan berkembang pada masa Zaman Dinasti Awal menjadi sistem tulisan yang akan menghasilkan karya seperti Epik dari Gilgamesh, Pujian Enheduanna kepada Inanna, dan banyak karya sastera hebat lainnya.

Sumeria menjadi bahasa lingua franca dalam Mesopotamia dan mendirikan sistem tulisan yang dikenali sebagai cuneiform yang kemudiannya akan digunakan untuk merekam bahasa lain. Komen Gwendolyn Leick:

Cakrawala budaya yang lebih homogen dari dataran aluvial [Sumer] menemui ekspresi dalam pengembangan penulisan dalam ungkapan tertentu. Mengapa bahasa Sumeria menjadi bahasa yang diwakili oleh tulisan masih tidak dapat dipastikan. Mesopotamia tidak pernah homogen dari segi bahasa atau etnik dan nama-nama peribadi dalam teks awal jelas menunjukkan bahawa bahasa selain Sumeria dituturkan pada masa itu. (65)

Sumeria terkenal sebagai bahasa tulisan pada akhir abad ke-4 SM dan budaya, agama, seni bina, dan aspek peradaban Sumeria yang lain juga. Sastera Sumeria akan mempengaruhi penulis kemudian, terutama para penulis yang menulis Alkitab, sebagai kisah mereka Mitos Adapa, Kejadian Eridu, dan Atrahasis akan memberitahu kisah alkitabiah kemudian mengenai Taman Eden, Kejatuhan Manusia, dan Banjir Besar. Karya-karya Enheduanna akan menjadi model untuk liturgi kemudian, dongeng binatang Mesopotamia akan dipopularkan oleh Aesop, dan Epik Gilgamesh akan memberi inspirasi kepada karya seperti Iliad dan Odyssey.

Konsep dewa-dewa yang tinggal di kuil kota, serta bentuk dan ukuran ziggurat Sumeria, dianggap mempengaruhi perkembangan piramid Mesir dan kepercayaan mereka tentang dewa-dewa mereka sendiri. Konsep zaman Sumeria, serta sistem tulisan mereka, juga diadopsi oleh peradaban lain. Meterai silinder Sumeria - tanda pengenalan diri seseorang - tetap digunakan di Mesopotamia sehingga c. 612 SM dan kejatuhan Empayar Asyur. Sebenarnya tidak ada bidang peradaban yang tidak memberikan sumbangan orang Sumeria tetapi, untuk semua kekuatan mereka, budaya mereka mulai merosot jauh sebelum ia jatuh.

Tamadun Sumeria runtuh c. 1750 SM dengan pencerobohan wilayah oleh orang Elam. Shulgi dari Ur telah mendirikan tembok besar pada tahun 2083 SM untuk melindungi rakyatnya dari pencerobohan seperti itu, tetapi, kerana ia tidak berlabuh di kedua ujungnya, ia dapat dengan mudah berjalan - itulah yang dilakukan oleh penjajah. Walaupun begitu, budaya tersebut telah berjuang untuk mempertahankan autonomi sejak orang Amori memperoleh kekuasaan di Babilon. Pergeseran pengaruh budaya, yang dibuktikan dalam banyak aspek tetapi, terutama, dalam nisbah lelaki-wanita dari pantheon Mesopotamia, muncul dengan meningkatnya kekuasaan orang-orang Amori Semit di Babel dan, terutama, pada masa pemerintahan Hammurabi (r. 1792 -1750 SM) yang sepenuhnya membalikkan model teologi Sumeria dalam mengangkat dewa lelaki tertinggi, Marduk, daripada yang lain. Kuil-kuil yang didedikasikan untuk dewi digantikan oleh kuil-kuil untuk para dewa dan, walaupun kuil-kuil dewi tidak hancur, mereka dipinggirkan.

Pada masa yang sama, hak wanita - yang secara tradisional setara dengan lelaki - merosot seperti halnya kota Sumeria. Penggunaan tanah dan bandar yang berlebihan, ditambah dengan konflik yang berterusan, disebut sebagai sebab utama kejatuhan bandar. Hubungan antara penurunan status dewa wanita dan hak wanita tidak pernah dijelaskan dengan secukupnya - tidak diketahui mana yang lebih dulu - tetapi ini adalah perincian yang jelas dalam penurunan budaya yang selalu mementingkan wanita. Pada masa orang Elam menyerang? 1750 SM, budaya Sumeria sudah merosot dan orang-orang Elam menyelesaikan prosesnya.

Penemuan

Orang Sumeria diakui hari ini kerana banyak sumbangan terhadap budaya dunia, tetapi ini adalah perkembangan yang cukup baru. Sejarah mereka terkubur di bawah pasir selama berabad-abad dan oleh itu para rujukan dalam karya kuno disalahpahami oleh para sarjana kerana tidak ada rujukan yang diketahui mengenai kiasan tersebut. Tanah Shinar, dalam Kitab Kejadian alkitabiah, misalnya, difahami menyinggung beberapa wilayah Mesopotamia tetapi kepentingan rujukan itu tidak dapat difahami selagi para sarjana tidak tahu tempat seperti tanah Sumeria - Shinar alkitabiah - pernah wujud.

Keadaan ini berubah secara mendadak pada pertengahan abad ke-19 CE ketika institusi dan masyarakat Barat mula mengirim ekspedisi ke Timur Dekat dan Timur Tengah untuk mencari bukti fizikal untuk mengesahkan kisah-kisah alkitabiah. Sekiranya sebuah negeri seperti Shinar pernah ada, ia beralasan, runtuhannya - bersama dengan bangunan dan kota lain yang disebutkan dalam Alkitab - dapat ditemukan.

Pada masa ini, Alkitab (khususnya narasi Perjanjian Lama) dianggap sebagai buku tertua di dunia dan benar-benar asli. Kisah Taman Eden, Kejatuhan Manusia, Banjir Besar dianggap karya asli yang ditulis secara langsung, atau diilhami oleh, satu-satunya Tuhan tradisi Judeo-Kristian. Para ahli arkeologi dan cendekiawan yang dikirim dalam ekspedisi ini seharusnya menemui bukti yang kukuh untuk menyokong tuntutan ini tetapi, sebaliknya, menemui sebaliknya: mereka mendapati Sumer.


Sepuluh Fakta Parsi Purba yang Perlu Anda Ketahui

Budaya Parsi kuno memberikan pengaruh kuat di Timur Dekat, dan seterusnya, selama lebih dari seribu tahun antara c. 550 SM - 651 M dan banyak aspek budaya mereka terus mempengaruhi orang lain selepas itu hingga ke hari ini. Pemerintahan Parsi pertama adalah Kerajaan Achaemenid (sekitar 550-330 SM) yang jatuh ke Alexander Agung dan, setelah kematiannya, wilayah ini dipegang oleh Kerajaan Seleucid Hellenik (312-63 SM) yang diasaskan oleh salah seorang jeneral Alexander Seleucus Saya Nicator (r. 305-281 SM). Kebudayaan Parsi berterusan di bawah Seleucid, bagaimanapun, dan sekali lagi menjadi dominan dengan kebangkitan Empayar Parthian (247 SM-224 CE) dan terus, pada puncaknya yang paling tinggi, di seluruh Kerajaan Sassanian (224-651 CE) sehingga orang-orang Persia ditakluki oleh Arab Muslim yang menyerang.

Sejak zaman awal Kerajaan Achaemenid hingga yang terakhir dari Sassanians, orang-orang Parsi memperkenalkan sejumlah konsep baru dalam inovasi dan penemuan yang sering dianggap biasa hari ini atau yang asal usulnya tidak diketahui. Motif sastera, kebiasaan waktu minum teh harian, menjaga anjing, penyejukan dan penyejuk udara, dan banyak aspek lain dari kehidupan moden harian yang berasal atau dikembangkan oleh orang-orang Parsi kuno.

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Orang-orang Parsi berpegang pada tradisi lisan untuk menyampaikan maklumat, dan begitu banyak sejarah mereka, sehingga zaman Sassanian, berasal dari orang lain. Sebahagian besar dari apa sahaja catatan bertulis mengenai Achaemenids ada dimusnahkan oleh Alexander ketika dia membakar ibu kota Persepolis pada tahun 330 SM dan Parthians mengekalkan tradisi lisan pendahulu mereka dan begitu banyak sejarah Parsi dipelihara oleh orang Yunani dan, kemudian, orang Rom. Penulis-penulis ini tidak selalu mewakili budaya Parsi dengan tepat tetapi memberikan maklumat yang cukup, ditambah dengan bukti arkeologi dan sumber-sumber Parsi yang masih ada, untuk mengenali kekuatan dan visi budaya dan warisannya yang kekal.

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Berikut adalah sepuluh sumbangan dan fakta sejarah yang berkaitan dengan orang Parsi yang sering diabaikan atau sebahagian besarnya tidak diketahui. Ini hanya sebilangan kecil yang dapat diperhatikan, dan tidak mulai menangani luasnya pencapaian Parsi.

Parsi Adalah Nama Yunani untuk Iran

Nama asal Iran adalah Airyanam (seperti di Avesta, tulisan suci Zoroastrian dari Parsi), juga diberikan sebagai Eran dan Irania dan yang bermaksud "tanah orang Arya" yang merujuk kepada suku-suku pertama yang menetap di wilayah ini sekitar milenium ke-3 SM. Aryan bermaksud "mulia" atau "orang bebas" dan merujuk kepada golongan orang, bukan kewarganegaraan. Salah satu suku Aryan ini menetap di wilayah Persis (juga dikenali sebagai Parsa, moden Fars), dan dari Persis, penulis Yunani Herodotus (l. 484-425 / 413 SM) memanggil orang-orang Orang Parsi. Kemudian penulis Yunani dan Rom mengikuti Herodotus dalam hal ini sehingga, di Barat, orang Iran kuno dikenali sebagai Parsi.

Daftar untuk mendapatkan buletin e-mel percuma setiap minggu!

Wilayah ini terus dikenal sebagai Parsi hingga abad ke-20 Masehi hingga, pada tahun 1935 M, pemerintah Iran mengambil saranan Nazi Jerman (dengan siapa mereka memiliki hubungan diplomatik yang kuat) untuk secara resmi meminta negara itu diakui sebagai Iran untuk mengaitkannya dengan konsep yang salah Aryan seperti yang difahami oleh Parti Nazi. Iran kuno terus dikenali sebagai Parsi di Barat hanya kerana sejarawan Barat terus menggunakan istilah itu, dan ia membezakan sejarah kuno wilayah itu dari yang moden.

Peti Sejuk & Penyaman Udara Pertama

Orang Parsi mencipta, atau mengembangkan, sistem penyejukan pertama, yang dikenali sebagai yakhchal. Ini adalah struktur kubah yang terbuat dari tanah liat, yang digunakan untuk menyimpan es tetapi, akhirnya, juga digunakan untuk menjaga agar makanan tetap dingin. Penemuan yakhchal biasanya dikaitkan dengan pemerintahan raja Achaemenid pertama Cyrus II (Yang Agung, sekitar 550-530 SM) tetapi sebenarnya diciptakan lebih awal sama ada oleh orang Parsi atau orang-orang Elam yang berdekatan yang menyumbang sejumlah konsep dan inovasi kepada budaya Parsi. Walau bagaimanapun, kincir angin adalah penemuan Parsi, yang dibuat c. 500 SM, dan menyebabkan pengembangan sistem pengudaraan yang dikenal sebagai penangkap angin (atau menara angin) yang merupakan struktur yang melekat pada puncak bangunan, yang akan menarik udara sejuk ke bawah, mendorong udara hangat ke atas, dan menjaga bangunan suhu yang selesa dalam cuaca panas.

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Fatalisme sebagai Motif Sastera

Penemuan Parsi lain, yang sering diabaikan, adalah motif sastera fatalisme yang dinyatakan dalam frasa Latin Vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam ("Jumlah hidup yang singkat melarang kita untuk bertahan lama") yang berkembang dari sekte Zoroastrianisme yang dikenal sebagai Zorvanisme. Dalam Zorvanisme, Zorvan dipuja sebagai Dewa Masa Tidak Terbatas dan, kerana seseorang tidak dapat menarik waktu untuk mengubah nasib seseorang dengan cara apa pun, sistem kepercayaan ini menimbulkan konsep fatalisme. Tidak kira apa yang dilakukan seseorang, seseorang menghadapi kepupusan yang tidak dapat dielakkan dan jangka hayat seseorang sudah ditentukan.

Motif ini terkenal dieksploitasi di Rubaiyat penyair Parsi Omar Khayyam (l. 1048-1131 CE) tetapi digunakan lebih awal dari zamannya (dan terutama oleh Ferdowsi, l. 940-1020 CE, dalam bukunya Shahnameh), dijemput oleh penulis Yunani dan Rom, dan berterusan hingga ke hari ini. Ia sering menjadi tema asas ubi sunt motif ("ke mana mereka pergi?") dan memberitahu sejumlah karya sastera yang hebat. The motif is probably best expressed in the modern era by the lines, “They are not long, the days of wine and roses/Out of a misty dream/Our path emerges for a while, then closes/Within a dream” by the English poet Ernest Dowson (l. 1867-1900 CE), though it has formed the basis for many famous works before and since Dowson's time.

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Birthday Celebrations & Dessert

Birthday celebrations began as festivals honoring the king's birth, but the Persians eventually expanded the concept to include everyone and so invented the birthday party. These celebrations included special foods prepared for the guest of honor and a cake served after the meal with lighted candles on it. The cake itself might have been specially prepared for the event but the practice of eating sweets or some other sort of treat after dinner was common after every evening meal. The Greek writers criticized the Persians for this practice, but the Persians considered the Greeks barbaric and simple-minded for not appreciating the value of desserts and thought them uncultured and underfed. The birthday party and concept of dessert both highlight the Persian cultural value of enjoying life while one can and making each day a celebration.

Women's Rights

Although the claim that the Persians were the first in the world to issue a Declaration of Human Rights (via the famous Cyrus Cylinder) has been challenged, there is no disputing the fact that Persian women had more rights and privileges than any other ancient culture except for Egypt. Royal women were treated with the greatest respect while men and women of the lower classes worked the same jobs for the same pay as evidenced by the Fortification dan Treasury Texts from the time of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE). Women could supervise men on the job, and those with exceptional skills and administrative power were addressed as Arashshara (Great Chief). Women could own land, served in the military (as enlisted, officers, and on the high command in the company of the king), and ran their own businesses. The most popular goddess of the Early Iranian Religion was Anahita who continued to be venerated as an aspect of the god Ahura Mazda once the Persians adopted the monotheism of Zoroastrianism.

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Monotheism & Religious Tolerance

The Early Iranian Religion was polytheistic, worshipping many gods who were presided over by Ahura Mazda (Lord of Wisdom), until the prophet Zoroaster (l. c. 1500-1000 BCE) introduced the concept of monotheism. Although the monotheistic construct was embraced by the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE), Zoroaster envisioned the same independently, developed it completely, and established it so firmly that it would endure from his time to the present day. Zoroastrianism recast the earlier polytheistic deities within a monotheistic framework so the former gods and goddesses were now emanations or aspects of the one true god Ahura Mazda who encouraged people to live according to the simple dictum of Good Thoughts, Good Words, Good Deeds which would elevate them and those they interacted with. Even though the Persians believed they had received a genuine revelation from the Divine, however, they never persecuted those of other faiths and all religions were respected throughout the course of all three of their empires.

Truth as the Highest Value

One contributing factor to this tolerance was the Persian cultural value of knowing and telling the truth. Truth was such a vital aspect of Persian culture that it was one of the vows a soldier took upon entering service and the Persian word for truth (asa atau arta) appears in a number of Persian names, notably those of kings such as Artaxerxes. Greek writers, who are sometimes – if not often – hostile to Persian values make a point to commend them on this aspect, noting that Persians detested liars and scorned those who were in debt because a debtor was apt to lie to avoid paying back what was owed.

The Persian version of hell was known as The House of Lies and had three levels, the lowest and darkest for the worst of sinners, who, among other transgressions, had lied the most. Believing that their religion was true, they felt no need to impose it on any others since it was clear to them that, in time, people would recognize the truth of Zoroastrianism themselves and embrace it. If not, it was no great matter since they believed that the souls of transgressors or unbelievers were only punished for a certain amount of time in the afterlife before they were welcomed to paradise by Ahura Mazda.

Initiated Military Uniforms & Units

Military units and regiments were a Median invention under their king Cyaxares (r. 625-585 BCE), but Cyrus the Great reformed his model. Cyrus organized the military on the decimal system so that each unit was comprised of ten lesser: 10 men = a company 10 companies = a battalion 10 battalions = a division 10 divisions = a corps. In order to differentiate between units, the Persian command instituted different colored uniforms (yellow, blue, and purple) and regulated signals for communication between corps. As noted, women could serve in the military and some known by name are Artunis (l. c. 540-500 BCE), Pantea Arteshbod (served under Cyrus the Great), who assisted in the formation of the elite unit of the 10,000 Immortals, and Artemisia I of Caria (l. c. 480 BCE), famous for her valor at the Battle of Salamis in 480 BCE.

Conquered Egypt with Cats

The Persians could also be quite innovative in military tactics. In 525 BCE, the Persian king Cambyses II (r. 530-522 BCE) invaded Egypt. Herodotus claims this was in response to an insult by the Egyptian pharaoh but could as easily simply have been a continuation of Cyrus the Great's expansionist policy. He was stopped at the strongly fortified city of Pelusium which he knew he could not take without heavy losses. Cambyses II was well acquainted with Egyptian culture, however, and recognized that their love of animals – especially cats – could be exploited. He had his soldiers paint the image of the Egyptian goddess Bastet (regularly depicted as a cat or a woman with a cat's head) on their shields and, further, rounded up stray animals (including cats) which his army drove before them toward the city. Rather than harm the animals or disrespect the image of Bastet, the Egyptians surrendered, and Cambyses II claimed the country for the Achaemenid Empire.

Postal System & Hospital

The first highly developed postal system was developed by the Persians under Darius I who decreed a network of roads be built for ease of travel and then instituted a service whereby riders could carry messages between his various capitals or encampments. These mounted messengers were provided with stops along the way to refresh themselves and their horses and were so dedicated to their mission that they stopped for nothing. Herodotus praises the Persian postal system in his famous lines, “Whatever the conditions – it may be snowing, raining, blazing hot, or dark – they never fail to complete their assigned journey in the fastest possible time” (Sejarah, VIII.98). These lines, in modified form, are now the unofficial motto of the United States Postal Service and have been since 1914 CE.

The Persians also initiated the first hospitals beginning under the reign of Shapur I (240-270 CE) who founded the Academy of Gundeshapur, an intellectual and cultural center. The academy welcomed medical professionals and intellectuals of all nationalities and, under the later Sassanian king Kosrau I (r. 531-579 CE) became the first teaching hospital in the world.

Kesimpulannya

In addition to the above, the Persians invented the precursor of the guitar, their stringed instrument known as the sestar, developed the irrigation system of the qanat, still used today to fertilize fields, and contributed various items, or names, well known in the modern day. These include the English word paradise (from their word pairi-daeza for an enclosed, landscaped garden), the sandal, the tapestry, the Persian rug, the word and concept of magic, as well as the name of the lilac bush and tulip. They also popularized tea as a daily drink, the use of incense in ritual, and the care and training of horses and dogs. Dogs were so highly valued by the Persians that one's final destination in the afterlife was determined, in part, by how well – or poorly – one had treated dogs.

When the Sassanian Empire fell to the Muslim Arabs in 651 CE, their culture was at first suppressed and their rituals and traditions outlawed. In time, however, Persian culture was assimilated by the conquerors and spread across the Near East and then beyond. In the 18th century CE, popular European poets and scholars took an interest in the culture and this encouraged wider interest from the West. Presently, two of the most widely read poets in the world are Rumi (l. 1207-1273 CE) and Hafez Shiraz (also known as Hafiz, l. 1315-1390 CE), both Persians, whose works continue to inspire and often serve as an introduction to the vast contributions of their culture.


Does the Ancient Sumerian Language Predate the Flood?

The history of the historical significance of the Sumerian language:
Many of those who attack the veracity of the Bible believe the Sumerian language to be the oldest written language in existence. First attested about 3100 BCE in southern Mesopotamia, it flourished during the 3rd millennium. Sumerian never extended much beyond its original boundaries in southern Mesopotamia the small number of its native speakers was entirely out of proportion to the tremendous importance and influence Sumerian exercised on the development of the Mesopotamian and other ancient civilizations in all their stages. About 2000 BCE, Sumerian was replaced as a spoken language by Semitic Akkadian (Assyro-Babylonian), but continued in written usage almost to the end of the life of the Akkadian language, around the beginning of the Christian era (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011).

According to most secular sources, the Sumerian language is the earliest known written language. What is referred to as the “proto-literate” period of Sumerian writing spans ca. 3500 to 3000 BCE. In this period, records are purely logographic, with no linguistic or phonological content (Wikepedia, 2011). Because secular scholars give little or no weight to biblical sources, they just ignore the evidence from the Bible entirely.

In truth, no one actually knows what the original language of man was. Because most philologists are heavily indoctrinated into the Darwinian worldview, they cannot accept the biblical revelation as being authentic. For this reason, these scholars reject the evidence concerning the origination of all language as revealed in Genesis chapter ten, e.g. the Tower of Babel, assigning it to mythical status.

It is important to realize that the ancient Hebrew, the language of the Jewish people and the language of the Tanakh, is at least as old as ancient Sumerian. While secular scholars believe Hebrew developed along side of some other ancient languages and dialects, it does not mean that the ancient Hebrew came from, or was predated by, other languages. This is just one more example of a conclusion from a secular academic community driven by a Darwinian worldview. In fact, the patriarchs of Israel had Hebrew names. The names of Adam and Eve were derived from the Hebrew. All of the accounts of the geographical locations, etc. are in Hebrew. The Bible tells us there was one seminal language, so what was that language? My vote would be ancient Hebrew.

The Secular Worldview:
Records with unambiguously linguistic content, identifiably Sumerian, are those found at Jemdet Nasr, dating to the 31st or 30th century BCE. From about 2600 BCE, the logographic symbols were generalized using a wedge-shaped stylus to impress the shapes into wet clay. This archaic cuneiform ("wedge-shaped") mode of writing co-existed with the pre-cuneiform archaic mode. Deimel (1922) lists 870 signs used in the Early Dynastic IIIa period (26th century). In the same period, the large set of logographic signs had been simplified into a logosyllabic script comprising several hundred signs. Rosengarten (1967) lists 468 signs used in Sumerian (pre-Sargonian) Lagash. The pre-Sargonian period of the 26th to 24th centuries BC is the “Classical Sumerian” stage of the language.

The cuneiform script is adapted to Akkadian writing from the mid 3rd millennium. Our knowledge of Sumerian is based on Akkadian glossaries. During the "Sumerian Renaissance" (Ur III) of the 21st century BC, Sumerian is written in already highly abstract cuneiform glyphs directly succeeded by Old Assyrian cuneiform (Wikipedia, 2011).

The Biblical Model for the Evolution of Language:
According to the Bible, all people spoke one language (Genesis 11:1) until the construction of the Tower of Babel, in southern Mesopotamia. This occurred sometime around 4000 BCE (Unger, 1977). During the construction of the Tower, God confused the language of man and scattered the nations (Genesis 11:7-8).

It is at this time that the Sumerians (from the land of Sumer, known as Shinar in the Bible - Genesis 10:10), speaking a non-Semitic language (Packer, Tenney, & White, Jr., 1995) appear in southern Mesopotamia. It is believed that the Sumerians are related to the people living between the Black and Caspian Seas (Miller & Miller, J. L., 1973) known as the Scythians, ancestors of Noah's son Japheth .

At approximately the same time the Sumerians appeared in Mesopotamia, another civilization emerges in the South, the Egyptians. The original language of the Egyptians is Hamitic (From Ham, the second son of Noah) and is also unrelated to the Semitic languages (Unger, 1977, p. 288).

The Problem with Usher’s Timeline:
Part of the problem with timelines can be traced back to Usher’s chronology. James Ussher (sometimes spelled Usher) was Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland between 1625–56 CE. Usher was a prolific scholar, who most famously published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding Sunday, 23 October 4004 BC, according to the proleptic Julian calendar.

Still, Usher’s chronology is one of the most widely accepted timelines for the Bible. There are others who believe that the Bible genealogies used to calculate timelines are incomplete and would not have listed every generation. That said, using Usher’s chronology, the date of creation was calculated to be 4004 BCE. Usher placed the Flood at ca. 2348 BCE. The Jewish historian, Josephus, Ussher, and many other scholars disagree slightly on some of their dates. But most agree that a straightforward reading of the Bible indicates the Deluge must have taken place in the third millennium before the birth of Jesus Christ — probably between 2500 BCE and 2300 BCE.

The Bible indicates it was 130 years from the Flood until the Tower of Babel. By Usher’s chronology, that would place the confusing of the languages ca. 2218 BCE. So is Usher’s chronology correct or not? There is much riding on this question. It is due to the fact that the Bible indicates that all people spoke one common language until the time that God intervened and created many different languages to thwart the plans of the ancient post-Flood people as recorded in Genesis chapter ten.

We have already noted that Merril Unger as well as other biblical scholars date the biblical story of the Tower of Babel to 4000 BCE. This is almost identical to Usher’s and Josephus’s date for the creation (as noted in Gen. 1:1). This is approximately 1000 years earlier than the archeological discoveries associated with the ancient Sumerian language.

Archaeology, supported by radiometric dating, alleges that the Sumerian language predates the Flood of Noah, when using the 2218 BCE date that Usher calculated. If Usher was correct, and the radiometric dating is also correct, we have evidence that invalidates the biblical account. One or the other is correct. They cannot both be accurate.

Where was Babel and What Really Happened There?

The biblical narrative is as follows:
Now the whole earth had one language and one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. Then they said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They had brick for stone, and they had asphalt for mortar. And they said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city, and a tower whose top is in the heavens let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be scattered abroad over the face of the whole earth.”

But the LORD came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built. And the LORD said, “Indeed the people are one and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do now nothing that they propose to do will be withheld from them. Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, that they may not understand one another’s speech.” So the LORD scattered them abroad from there over the face of all the earth, and they ceased building the city. Therefore its name is called Babel, because there the LORD confused the language of all the earth and from there the LORD scattered them abroad over the face of all the earth, Gen. 11:1-9.

The location for the Tower of Babel was (from or) east of Shinar. In ancient Hebrew, Shinar means “two rivers.” Shinar was part of ancient Mesopotamia, more specifically somewhere around the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, i.e. representing the “two rivers” that is the definition of the word, or southern Babylon where Iraq is located today. Interestingly, the Akkadian: bab-ilu, from bab “gate” + ilu “god” is very similar if not completely identical to the Hebrew: bab-el, from bab "gate" + el “god,” (Merriam Webster, 2011). Most scholars today associate the Tower of Babel with an attempt to study the stars in the hope of attaining enlightenment. There is also a word play that appears in the Hebrew where “Babel” can mean confusion.

What we do know is that ancient Babylon became the seat of false religion that continues to plague mankind to this very day. This counterfeit faith finds its origins in the history of Nimrod, Gen. 10:8, and his wife Semiramis. This became the mother-child cult religion of ancient Babylon. This sect continued to spread throughout the civilized world eventually infecting the nation of Israel with the false worship of the Queen of Heaven, Jer. 7:17-18, 44:17-25. In the classic book, The Two Babylons by Rev. Alexander Hislop (1858), this history of pagan worship is meticulously studied revealing the links between Nimrod, Gen. 10:9, and every major civilization of antiquity.

The Etymology of the Word Babel:
The phrase "the Tower of Babel" does not actually appear in the Bible it is always, “the city and its tower” (אֶת-הָעִיר וְאֶת-הַמִּגְדָּל) or just "the city" (הָעִיר), (Wikipedia, 2011). Originally, the city receives the name “Babel” from the word from ancient Hebrew, “balal” meaning to jumble or confuse. The confusing of the languages effectively stopped the concerted efforts of those who rejected the God of Noah, and His covenant with mankind, Gen. 9:1-13. Their attempt to overthrow the worship of the true and living God and replace it with a pagan substitute rooted in astrology and polytheism was defeated. The result of waking up and not being able to communicate with their neighbors further motivated them to leave their homes and migrate, e.g. the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth, Gen. 11:9b.


Does the Sumerian Language Predate the Tower of Babel and the Flood?

This is the crux of the matter. Because many who reject the veracity of God’s Word entertain alternate theories concerning the establishment and evolution of language. One of the most often criticisms of those who embrace the Hebrew Scriptures as God’s inspired Word to mankind is the claim that Sumerian predates the Flood.

Those who are constantly looking for evidence by which they can refute the trustworthiness of the Bible use the discovery of ancient Sumerian characters to disprove the biblical account. However, what are the facts behind their claim, and do the facts really disprove the biblical account?

The Encyclopædia Britannica dates the earliest documented use of the Sumerian language to 3100 BCE. So, what do biblical scholars believe concerning the story recorded in the Bible and what date would they ascribe to the creation of the various languages mankind uses to communication with one another.

Many reputable scholars, Unger, DeWitt, 1979 Livingston, 1974: 145-50 Aalders, 1981: 251-55 Harrison, 1969: 550-60, agree that the story of the Tower of Babel in the Bible is a trustworthy and historically accurate account of languages were created. Such scholars range from those who suggest that the account is generally and broadly historical (Livingston Harrison) to those who insist that historicity extends even to the details (Aalders Spina, 1992).

The consensus of scholars place the ancient Sumerians as having originated and coexisting with their Semitic neighbors much the way that the Sumerians and the Akkadians did. Because these ancient peoples are traced back to the same geographical location, as well as the same general time frame, it lends more credence to the biblical account recorded in the book of Genesis.

So can we say with absolute certainty that Sumerian predates ancient Hebrew? I do not think so. Whenever there is a discrepancy between modern scholarship and the Bible, I would side with the Biblical account. Radiometric dating may place the Sumerian language back to 3100 BCE, however, modern biblical scholarship dates the confounding of the languages to ca. 4000 BCE. That predates the earliest known examples of the Sumerian language by 900 years! (Safarti, 1999)

Perhaps Bible believing men and women should take a deep breath when confronted by those who think they have proved the Bible wrong. If the May/June 2011 article in Biblical Archaeology Review entitled “The Birth and Death of Biblical Minimalism” is an indication of things to come, modern biblical scholarship is going to have to admit that the majority of scholars who over the years have denied the veracity of the Scriptures have been completely wrong (Garfinkel, 2011).

While this may be a small ray of light from within a narrow community of scholars, I am not optimistic that their evolutionary counterparts will be as forthcoming. In fact, when the evolutionary faithful are confronted with overwhelming evidence against the millions to billions of years of evolutionary time they usually remain in complete denial. This includes evidence for a young earth/creation such as the partially fossilized remains from inside the femur of a 70 million year old T. Rex with collagen, hemoglobin, blood vessels and red blood cells (Schweitzer, 2005). In this same way, most of these biblical minimalists have not discarded their worldview or their distain for the Bible or those who view the Scriptures as the authoritative Word of God.


One thing is certain, believers should be mindful of the warnings contained in the Word of God:

That you may be mindful of the words which were spoken before by the holy prophets, and of the commandment of us the apostles of the Lord and Savior: Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, and saying, Where is the promise of his coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation, II Peter 3:2-4 KJV

The fact that there is such strong opposition to the truth contained in the Word of God is evidence concerning its power and authority. As the Apostle Paul wrote to the body of believers in Rome almost two millennia ago, So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God, Rom 10:17. This is thereal reason for the opposition expressed towards the Bible. Whether it is an attack on the Genesis account of creation, the confounding of the languages, or the gospel of God’s grace found in the Holy One of Israel, Messiah Jesus, God’s Word is always 100% trustworthy. The same cannot be said concerning the opinions of men. No matter how well educated a person might be, knowledge alone is not sufficient to cure what ails the human race. Only God can give sight to the spiritually blind, only the One who is the resurrection and the life can transform us from sinners into saints.


Ancient Sumerians

The Sumerian Gods were known as the Anunnaki, they were Anu, Enlil, Ishtar, and her mate Dumuzi, Inanna and Enki. These Gods ruled Sumer before passing rule to Gilgamesh who later passed rule onto Gudea who would later unify Sumer. Later would come a people known as the Akkadians, Sargon of Agade led the Akkadians to power in 2334, he would later become known as Sargon the great after uniting Sumer and Akkad. He is depicted in his sculpture with a beard and African features. By 2000 B.C. Indo Europeans known as Shubartu conquered Akkad around 1700 or 1800 B.C. Then came the Canaanites, also another group of Black people who invaded Mesopotamia from Arabia and established the rule of King Hammurabi who would later create the famous code of laws over the Babylonians. The 5th century B.C. would bring the Greek historian Herodotus who visited Mesopotamia and alluded to its people as Ethiopians. Others would follow and come to similar conclusions until approximately the late 1700s when historical facts became optional if not frowned upon to create a false narrative of European supremacy. The Pictures contained within this piece, are colored and leave little doubt as to their race or ethnic origin however, I would be willing to bet most reading this article have never seen these in their original form, and usually, you are shown the colorless version as to continue the ambiguous identity. Sometimes you are even shown whitewashed versions of these same pictures.

“If you don’t know where you come from, you don’t know where you’re going” – Maya Angelou


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The Mysterious Origins of the World’s First City-Builders

At some point near 5400 BCE, settlers in southern Mesopotamia—in what would now be called southeastern Iraq—founded Eridu, which historians now generally regard as the world’s first city. It had all the things we ordinarily associate with an ancient city: temples, administrative buildings, housing, agriculture, markets, art, and, of course, walls to keep out wild animals and bandits.

But here’s the funny thing: we have absolutely no idea where the Sumerians acquired their language, or what they might have looked like. Their language, which we call Sumerian, was a linguistic isolate—it’s the oldest known written language on Earth, and any languages it might have derived from or developed alongside have been lost to time. The Sumerian people were also, it can be reasoned, ethnically isolated referring to themselves as the sag gigga (“black-headed people”), they appear to have had no concept of race. And figuring out what their ethnic identity might have been based on their art is a doomed effort, because their art was so stylized that a good case could be made that it portrays people of ada ethnicity.

Culturally, they’re often linked to the Ma’dan (Marsh Arabs) who still live in southern Iraq. But the idea that the Ma’dan are ethnically Sumerian seems a bit unlikely, as the Sumerian language was not Semitic and the Akkadian conquests of 2334 BCE disrupted the ethnic and cultural isolation of the Sumerian people. By about 2000 BCE, the Sumerians were speaking Akkadian and the Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations were regarded as a single people there is no evidence in any extant texts that they were discouraged from intermarrying, so we can reasonably assume that it was normal to do so. Given that fact, and the 4,000 years of history between then and now, it seems unlikely that anyone living today has more than a tiny amount of Sumerian ancestry.

Does this mean that we’ll tidak pernah know how the Sumerian language developed, or where the Sumerians originally came from? Probably, but there are some ways we might find out: an older extant text from the region, written in a proto-Sumerian language, might connect Sumerian with languages that currently seem unrelated. And if any reasonably well-preserved Sumerian bones can be found (which isn’t completely implausible scientists have successfully sequenced 400,000-year-old human DNA), DNA testing could tell us their ethnic origin. Then again, it’s possible—and, given how little we know about the ancient world, perhaps even probable—that these discoveries will only deepen the mystery.


6. Sailing

Despite the availability of wagons, land transport was very slow and inefficient. Practically, it still is the slowest transport option.

If the journey was very long, there was a risk that the animals would die of fatigue, generating material losses. In this way, water transport emerged as a much more feasible and convenient alternative.

The first boats were created to be used in rivers. They were shaped like a square and consisted of a candle. The direction could not be changed, so it was at the mercy of the wind when these rafts were used. Honestly, I cannot imagine transporting goods or animals on these ancient boats.

These first ships sailed on the Tigris and Euphrates to explore certain areas and fish in areas where possible. The design was subsequently refined and improved.


Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids Ancient Sumer

Ancient Sumer was a bustling place. The cities were built along the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Long docks were built along the sides of the rivers so that ships could easily dock and unload the goods they had to trade. Ships brought food, drinks, clothes, jewelry, wine, and other goods up and down the rivers. Banquets were held with music and dancing. Poets would recite verses about great kingly deeds. Golden cups filled with sweet delicious date wine would be lifted in toast to their host.

Art: The Sumerians were wonderful craftsmen. They made jewelry of precious gold and lapis, fancy chairs, and unglazed vases that kept water cool. They were not very good at sculptures because their artists did have stone with which to work. But they made beautiful things with the materials on hand. One of the things they did very well was to create colorful mosaics in intricate and beautiful patterns using little pieces of painted clay. Archaeologists have found remains of their mosaics, helmets, harps, jewelry, pottery, decorated tablets and cylinder seals.

Muzik: The Sumerians must have loved music because musical instruments, made of wood or bone, have been found by archaeologists in their tombs.

Agama : The ancient Sumerians believed in many, many gods. They believed that everything that happened to them good and bad was the result of a god s pleasure or displeasure. Their daily life was spent seeking ways to please and appease their gods. To the ancient Sumerians, all gods were important.

Ziggurats : Ziggurats were temples. The Sumerians believed that powerful gods lived in the sky. They built huge structures, called ziggurats, with steps climbing up to the top. Religious ceremonies were held at the very top. People left offerings of food and wine. The priests enjoyed these offerings, as the gods could not eat for themselves. The Ziggurat was built in the center of town. It was also the center of daily life. Except for festivals, which, for the most part, were gloomy things, the Ziggurat courtyard was gay and lively. You might see an artist painting, a boy racing by on his way to school, someone milking a cow, or making a basket. From the top of the Ziggurat, you could see the protective wall built about the entire town, and over the wall to the farmlands beyond.

Pendidikan: The ancient Sumerians believed in education. Record keeping was very important to them. They wrote everything down. They wanted their sons to learn how to read and write. Public education probably began with the Sumerians. Schools were attached to temples. Only boys went to school. Teachers were very strict. Students had to do a perfect job, or they were punished. Most students wanted to go to school. Someone who could read and write could always find a good job.

Classes of People: There were four main classes of people in ancient Sumer the priests, the upper class, the lower class, and the slaves.

T he Priests: The priests were powerful. They were in charge of making sure everyone behaved in a way that would make the gods happy. They were the doctors of the time. If you were sick, you called for a priest. There is a written record of two priests, by the bed of a sick boy, dressed to look like fish to better speak with the water god. (This author does not know why the priests wanted to talk to the water god. Perhaps the boy became sick in the water or from drinking the water.)

The Upper Class: Men and women wore jewelry, especially rings. Men wore skirts and had long hair, curly moustaches, and long beards. Women wore dresses, off one shoulder. They had long hair, which they braided or wore up in fancy arrangements. It was easy to tell who were the priests. The priests shaved their heads. Everyone wore cloaks made from sheep wool to keep warm in winter.

Homes: The rich lived in large homes, and the poor lived in small homes. Most homes were clustered around the Ziggurat and each other. Most houses shared walls, like townhouses do today. There was little wood and stone available for building materials. People built their homes of sun-dried brick. Doors led into a small family courtyard. Stairs led up to the second floor, and then to the roof. The roofs were flat. People cooked and slept on their roofs, when weather permitted. As the cities grew, there were rich sections of town and poorer sections of town, but all families had a home of their own.

T he Lower Class: In ancient Sumer, people were paid for their work. If they ran a shop or worked in the fields, they were paid for their goods or labor. Stealing was a serious crime and punishment was severe. Everybody paid, even the king. Although the lower class did not have the luxury lifestyle of the rich, they were comfortable. They worked very hard, but they had homes. They wore jewelry, although perhaps it was not made of gold. They followed the clothing fashions of the time as much as possible. There was no law that said they could not move up the social scale, or more likely, have their children move up the social scale by becoming a scribe, or a priest or priestess.

The Slaves: When the Sumerians conquered another town, they brought prisoners back with them to act as slaves. Slaves worked for the king, the temple and the wealthy. Slaves were bought and sold. Records have been found recording the amount paid for a slave. Typically, a slave bought at auction cost less than a donkey but more than a cow.

Women: Women could freely go to the marketplace, buy and sell goods, handle legal issues, own property, and start their own business. Upper class women, like members of the royal family and those who gave their life to the temple as priestesses, could learn how to read and write. Some women even had jobs running parts of the town or jobs in city government. There were many female goddesses. Some cities selected a goddess rather than a god as their patron. Women were not equal to men, but they did have rights.

Sumer grew rapidly. Soon there were more than half a million people. About four out of five of those people lived in the cities, make Sumer the world's first urban culture.

City-States: To protect themselves, small towns attached themselves to big cities. This created a system of city-states. The civilization of ancient Sumer was composed of 12 major city-states. Each of these city-states had its own military and its own government. But the people in all the Sumerian city-states (cities) spoke the same language, believed in the same gods, and moved freely from one city-state to another, to trade and also to live. They also went to war with each other. The laws of all the city-states were pretty much universal. Everyone knew them and was expected to obey them. This was understood.

Uruk: In these early days, towns were walled for additional protection. The city of Uruk, located on the Euphrates River side of the land between two rivers, controlled 76 nearby villages and was enclosed within a 4-mile long wall of brick!

Ur: The capital of ancient Sumer was the city-state of Ur. Ur was also located on the Euphrates River to the south of Uruk. The river-trade kept the city well supplied with everything, including wealth. When the river changed its course, the city of Ur lost its wealth and its power.

Sumerian Inventions: The ancient Sumerians were very clever. They invented many things to make their life more comfortable and to help their civilization grow. They put wheels on carts and probably invented the sail for sailboats. They developed the first written language, called cuneiform. They invented cylinder seals as a form of identification. Each cylinder seal was different and owed by one person. This allowed people to sign contracts with their personal cylinder seal. They invented the first super hero, Gilgamesh. They may have invented kilns for bricks and plows for their fields. They are credited with inventing many other tools and implements to help with building and farming.


They were avid learners and curious about their environment

Thanks to the sustenance that the two rivers provided to cities in Mesopotamia, the inhabitants had ample time to explore their natural and metaphysical environment. In the various priestly schools and temples dotted across Mesopotamia, priests, and nobles of the society conducted investigations into things such as medicine, astrology, religion, and law. Naturally, a great number of their findings had religious undertones.

Long before the ancient Greeks even showed up, the region had its fair share of people who dabbled in philosophy. One such intellectual was Thales of Miletus (c. 585 BCE). Historians regard him as one of the first philosophers of the ancient world.


5 Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, &lsquoGate of the Sun&rsquo

Believed by some to be a portal to the land of the gods, the &ldquoGate of the Sun&rdquo in Bolivia shares much of its legends with other similar sites in the Andes region. Tiahuanaco city is said to be one of the most important sites of ancient America, with legends stating that the Sun god, Viracocha, appeared in Tiahuanaco and made it &ldquothe place of creation&rdquo&mdashthe place he chose to start the human race.

Carved from one block of stone and thought to be 14,000 years old, the gateway displays what appears to be human beings with &ldquorectangular helmets&rdquo. This has led many researchers to state the purpose of the gate is indeed connected to something astronomical, although this is hotly debated. The top-middle of the arch features a carving of the supposed sun god and shows what look to be rays of light appearing behind and forcing their way around all sides of the deities head.

Although it now stands upright, when it was found by European explorers in the mid-1800&rsquos, it was said to have been lying horizontally. It also appears to have a large crack to the top right of the arch. It is unknown how this happened.


Tonton videonya: Bangsa Sumeria. Fakta Menarik yang Tak Banyak Orang Ketahui (Januari 2022).